Our History

Greater Metro North & North Shore History


The neighborhoods that constitute Metro North, such as North Springfield, New Springfield, Brentwood, Norwood, and North Shore (Tallulah) resulted from an expansion of residential growth north out of downtown Jacksonville and the earlier Springfield neighborhood that occurred predominately during the first half of the twentieth century.  Interstate 95 roughly defines the Metro North area on the west, Moncrief Creek and the Trout River on the north, North Main Street on the east, and West Twelfth Street on the south, which is the northern boundary of the Springfield Historic District.  To the south is the earlier Springfield neighborhood that border Downtown, to the north and east are Panama Park, Long Branch, and Talleyrand, with Lake Forest and 45th and Moncrief neighborhoods to the west and north.  Although having some settlement and platting during the nineteenth century, the greater majority of the Metro North area was developed during the first quarter of the twentieth century.


A significant development in East Florida during the British Period (1763-1789) that has influenced the early settlement of Jacksonville was the completion of the Kings Road that connected New Smyrna and St. Augustine with the Georgia Colony. Cutting through the southeast part of present day Duval County, the Kings Road crossed the St. Johns River at Cowford continuing in a northwest direction towards the St Marys River.  Early settlement of what became Duval County was also influenced by the issuing of large land grants to encourage both settlement and economic development, a practice started by the British and continued by the Spanish during their second occupation of East Florida (1789 – 1821).  Contrary to the general practice elsewhere in the Spanish empire, these land grants were made to residents of the former English colonies of Georgia and South Carolina, most who were not practicing members of the Catholic faith.[1]

Much of the area northwest of Downtown Jacksonville was originally part of a Spanish land grant to Charles F. Sibbald of Philadelphia.  In 1816, Jose Coppinger, Governor of East Florida, granted Sibbald a tract composed of 16,000 acres of timberland between the Trout River and Six Mile Creek.  In exchange for the grant, Sibbald, who resided in Fernandina, was required to construct a sawmill on the property.  Due to political unrest in East Florida, Sibbald was not able to start construction of his sawmill until 1819.  Constructed by John Seymour Pickett, this first sawmill was destroyed by fire before being completed.  However, in 1828, Sibbald established the first steam powered-sawmill in Florida at Panama, which was located at the mouth of the Trout River. Reflecting an investment of approximately $30,000, Sibbald’s mill had thirty saws able to cut ten to fifteen thousand feet of lumber in a twelve-hour period. Timber for the mill came from trees cut from Sibbald’s large tract.[2] Although the vast properties of Sibbald were eventually subdivided and sold, most of the area stayed rural and undeveloped until after the Civil War.


John Seymour Pickett first came to Florida in 1803 where he settled on a 350 acre site along the Hillsboro River near New Smyrna.  After his first wife, Polly, was lost to sea during the voyage south, John Seymour Pickett married Maria Pons, member of a nearby Minorcan family.  Forced to vacant his property due to Indian raids, the family of John Seymour Pickett moved briefly to St. Augustine, before settling on a new 640 land grant in 1808 on the “south prong of six mile creek” about six miles northwest of the Cowford (Downtown Jacksonville).  With the transfer of Florida to the United States, Pickett was able to receive title to his property after satisfactorily demonstrating to the land commissioners that he had occupied and improved the property since before 1819 per the terms of the Donation Act enacted by Congress.[3] Later forming the nucleus of the Pickettville Community, the many descendant of John Seymour Pickett continued to live and work the land by operating sawmills and naval stores, as well as raising both beef and dairy cattle.  Many members of the Pickett family went on to hold elective office such as James E. Pickett who served in the Florida House of Representatives in 1893, and Harrison Jefferson Pickett who served as a member of the Duval County Board of Commissioners for twelve years.


Another pioneer family that came to this area during the Second Spanish period was Edward and Sarah Turner from Newberry County, South Carolina who by 1790 settled on a 640 acre land grant north of the Trout River.  Their grandson, Lemuel Turner (1831-1912) later operated a ferry across the Trout River, as well as opened a road to the ferry know at that time as the Turner Ferry Road.  A Confederate veteran, whose farm was destroyed by Union forces during the Civil War, Lem Turner went on to become successful in timber and land sales.  Much of his properties were later sold and developed as new subdivisions such as Lem Turner Park, Lake Forest Lake, Forest Hills, and Highlands.  Officially declared a state highway in 1927, Lem Turner Road, which runs from Moncrief Creek to the county line, was expanded to a four-lane highway in 1963.[4]


Areas immediately to the north and northwest of Downtown Jacksonville were for the most part sparsely populated until the expansion of new residential subdivisions during the first quarter of the twentieth century.  Today occupied by the various neighborhoods that constitute the Mid-Westside community (Durkeeville, Chase & 29th, Royal Terrace, and Grand Park), as well as Metro North, which includes North Springfield, Brentwood, Norwood, and Northshore (Tallulah), these large wooded parcels were mainly occupied by farms; lumber and naval store operations during most of the nineteenth century.  However even during the nineteenth century several plats were filed in anticipation of residential growth to the north and northwest stimulated by the successful Springfield Subdivision that opened in 1882.  Some of these early plats included Tallulah (1879 by Jeremiah Fallausbee), Panama Park, Moncrief Park (1883 by J.S. Bell), Long Branch (by J.J. Daniel), and North Springfield (1887).[5]

In addition to the earlier Kings Road of the colonial period, several roads later accessed the vast vacant parcels to the north and northwest of Downtown Jacksonville.  The East Shell Road (Talleyrand Avenue), which was opened in 1873, was a toll road connecting the East Jacksonville area with the community of Panama located to the north at the mouth of the Trout River.  In later years, the road was renamed to commemorate noted seasonal resident in the area, Charles Maurice Camille, Marquis de Talleyrand.  The Marquis was a descendant of the famous French diplomat and public official, Charles Maurice Talleyand-Perigord (1754-1838) who had a long and illustrious career that included service during the French Revolution, Napoleon’s reign, the Bourbon restoration, as well as the reign of Louis Philippe.  In 1869, Elizabeth marquise de Talleyrand-Perigord, American wife of the marquis, had purchased a 30-acre parcel known as “Millwood”, on the south side of Long Branch Creek where it empties into the St. Johns River.  Originally constructed in the 1850’s, “Millwood” was the country estate for the family of lumber mill owner, James Daniel, that included his son James Jaquelin Daniel (1832-1888), a well-known and respected city leader who died during the tragic 1888 Yellow Fever epidemic.  Although eventually selling “Millwood” in the late 1860’s, James Jaquelin Daniel later purchased an estate known as “Palermo” on the north side of Long Branch Creek that had formerly been the family home of his wife, Emily L’Engle.  Talleyrand only occupied “Millwood” for a few seasons and had sold the property by 1873.[6]


After the Civil War, Peter Jones, Republican Mayor of Jacksonville during much of the 1870’s, acquired property around Moncrief Springs, located off Moncrief Road near the intersection of present-day West 45th Street, with the intent of developing a resort for the many tourists visiting Jacksonville during the winter.  According to legend, the spring was named after a French pawnbroker, Eugene Moncrief, who had accumulated much wealth in the form of jewelry and precious gems.  In June of 1793, when the ship he was on sailed up the St. Johns River, Moncrief took his nine chests of loot and buried them near the springs.  The legend continues that Moncrief removed one of the chest; however, was later murdered by Indians before recovering the remaining eight chests.  This legend was first written up in the Tri-weekly Florida Union in 1874 around the time Jones was developing the resort.[7]


The Moncrief Park Development included a baseball field, bathhouses, restaurant, bowling alley, dancing pavilion, and mile long racetrack.  Noted by famous Poet, Sidney Lanier, during his 1874 visit to Jacksonville, the Moncrief resort drew over 3,000 spectators at the first game at the new baseball field.  Jones established the Shell Road Company to extend Pine or Main Street out to the resort via West Eighth Street and Moncrief Road.  Later called Moncrief Shell Road, this toll road was the third paved road in Jacksonville after the Plank Road and East Shell Road (Talleyrand Avenue).  The development of the Moncrief Shell Road and the opening of the trolley line by the Jacksonville Traction Company also stimulated residential growth adjacent to Moncrief Road.[8]


Another early road that dates to the nineteenth century is Main Street, also called Pine Street until 1888, which connected Downtown with Panama at the mouth of the Trout Rivers, as well as connected with the East Shell Road (Talleyrand Avenue) making a continuous loop known as the “Ten-Mile Drive”, popular for bicycle and carriage excursions.  The West Shell Road or Moncrief Road connected with Main or Pine Street via West Eighth Street.  Main or Pine Street had followed the general route of the earlier Panama Road that served as the major entry in the city from the north.  Residential construction north of Downtown, particularly in Springfield, was greatly stimulated by the opening of a streetcar line in 1882 that ran from Bay Street, up Pine (Main Street) to Eighth Street.  The physical character of much of the areas north and northwest of Downtown Jacksonville were also shaped during the nineteenth century by railroad construction.  Both the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Airline, which had grew from the purchase and consolidation of numerous smaller lines, had made a presence in this area by the end of the 1800’s and were joined in the early part of the twentieth century by the Jacksonville Terminal Company railroad that connected these major lines with the port along Talleyrand Avenue.[9]


With the Old City Cemetery in Oakland near Downtown not able to serve the growing community, the Jacksonville Cemetery Association was founded in 1880 for purpose of establishing a new cemetery.  Under the leadership of its president, James Jaquelin Daniel, the association purchased two hundred acres of high ground immediately north of Long Branch Creek between the fashionable Springfield neighborhood and the new subdivision to the north called Panama Park.  With additional property donated by the Daniel family, Evergreen Cemetery began accommodating burials in 1881 that later included the relocation of the graves of some of Jacksonville’s pioneer families such as that of Isaiah D. Hart, recognized as the founder of Jacksonville.  In 1899, Charles Clark opened the forty-one acre Woodlawn Cemetery to the west of Evergreen, which was purchased in 1912 by the Evergreen Cemetery Association.  In 1881, the Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine purchased a twenty-acre tract from the Evergreen Cemetery Directors for the purpose of establishing a separate Catholic burial ground known as St. Mary’s Cemetery.  In 1976, the Evergreen Cemetery Association officially acquired St. Mary’s Cemetery.  In addition to containing a significant collection of monuments, crypts, and gravestones, Evergreen Cemetery, which currently has approximately 60,000 graves, is the final resting places for four U.S. Senators, four Governors, as well as other noted individuals in government, commerce, military, and community service.[10]


In the summer of 1888, Jacksonville was paralyzed with an outbreak of yellow fever that crippled the economy and resulted in the death of 427 people.  With a rigid quarantine established against Jacksonville, many citizens who had left the city had to be housed in refugee camps located in the outlying areas.  These refuge camps included Camp Perry along the St. Marys River at Boulogne, Camp Mitchell located seven miles west of the city, Camp Howard located two miles north of the city limits, and the “Sands Hills Hospital” just beyond Camp Howard.  Reportedly located near the current site of the Gateway Mall, the “Sands Hills Hospital” was actually constructed earlier to serve as an emergency medical facility after a smallpox scare in 1883.  Reportedly many of the casualties from the 1888 yellow fever epidemic were buried in graves located near the “Sands Hills Hospital”.  Although there is no physical presence of these graves, it has been reported through oral sources over the years that construction in the Gateway Mall area has resulted in the discovery of human remains associated with the yellow fever epidemic.[11]


The large open tract between Moncrief Creek to the north and Golfair Boulevard to the south and east to Springfield Boulevard, which once included the “Sands Hills Hospital” and later the site of the Gateway Mall, was partially utilized as fairgrounds, racetrack, and prison farm before being converted to other uses.  The old Brentwood Golf course, which was the namesake for Golfair Boulevard, was carved from a major portion of this tract, which was divided into two sections by the construction of Interstate 95.  Originally opened by the City of Jacksonville in 1923, and designed by the famed Scottish golf architect, Donald Ross, the eighteen-hole Brentwood Course was sold to private interest in the 1960’s to avoid integrating the public facility.  Closed by the late 1970’s, the property was sold to the Duval County School Board for the construction of the A. Philip Randolph Academy of Technology with the remaining property reopening in 2000 as a nine-hole course with driving range under the direction of the First Tee of Jacksonville, Inc.[12]

When the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, early military activity centered on Tampa which became a training camp and embarkation point.  Overtaxing the infrastructure, particularly the railroads, the War Department began to look for new campsites outside of Tampa.  With support and encouragement of the business community, the War Department designated Jacksonville as a mobilization center.  The site chosen for a camp was the area immediately east of Springfield along Ionia Street between East Third Street and East Eight Street.  Headquarters for the 7th Army Corp under Major General Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of Robert E. Lee, the camp was called Camp Cuba Libre.  Starting with the 2nd Illinois and 1st. Wisconsin that arrived on May 22, 1898, the troop strength at Camp Cuba Libre progressively increased to well over 32,000 soldiers by September of 1898.  The 3rd. Nebraska, which arrived July 22, 1898 and encamped at Pablo Beach, was under three-time presidential candidate, Colonel William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925), “The Great Commoner”.


With so many soldiers housed in temporary camp facilities, the conditions were ripe for the outbreak and spread of commutable disease.  With the outbreak of Typhoid Fever which was recorded as early as late May, 1898, some of the troops were moved from the original East Springfield site, which was poorly drained and wet from heavy rains, to higher grounds on the west side of Springfield, around 5th Street and Silver Street, as well as to areas north of Evergreen Cemetery, and to Panama Park along the Trout River.  The Typhoid Fever outbreak drew national attention resulting in fact finding visits to Camp Cuba Libra by such noted figures as Clara Barton, Major Walter Reed, Secretary of War, Russell J. Algiers, as well as several governors with troops stationed in the City.  The number of sick soldiers so taxed the three divisional hospitals, the convalescent hospital at Pablo Beach, and St. Luke’s Hospital that additional care had to be provided in private homes.  The troops began departure in early September, with Camp Cuba Libre being officially closed in January of 1899.  The severity of the Typhoid Fever epidemic in Camp Cuba Libre is reflected in the fact that 362 soldiers died in Jacksonville from the illness compared to the 385 military personnel that died from action during the entire war.[13]


As the city grew following the Civil War, new towns and neighborhoods developed around the Downtown area such as LaVilla, Oakland, East Jacksonville, Fairfield, Springfield, Riverside, and Brooklyn.  In 1887, these towns and unincorporated neighborhoods were annexed into the city limits, thereby doubling the land area while increasing Jacksonville’s population from 11,545 to 21,589.  By 1900, Jacksonville was the largest city in Florida in terms of population, which had reached 28,430.  The signature event in the history of Downtown Jacksonville that defined the architectural character of the city during the first half of the twentieth century was the “Great Fire of 1901”.  Starting in the LaVilla area west of Downtown at noon on May 3, 1901, the fire destroyed within an eight-hour period over 2,300 buildings located on 148 city blocks causing an estimated 15 million in property damage.  Although only seven people lost their lives as a result of the fire, 8,677 people were left homeless.  Destroying the oldest and most densely populated area of the city, the fire consumed twenty-three churches, ten hotels including the grand St James and Windsor, as well as almost all public buildings such as the courthouse and city hall.  The destruction caused by the 1901 fire ushered in a new era of growth in Downtown Jacksonville referred to as the Jacksonville Renaissance (1901 – 1920).  It was during this period of significant economic and population growth during the first two decades of the twentieth century that the residential character of the Metro North began to develop and grow.[14]

Although scores of new subdivisions were platted in the area between 1901 and 1913, these developments became identified collectively under such names as North Springfield, New Springfield, Brentwood, Tallulah, Northshore, Panama Park, and Norwood.  Many times they were replats of sections of earlier nineteenth century subdivisions such as Tallulah, Long Branch, and Panama.  An early subdivision of the area north of the Springfield neighborhood was platted by E. A. Lindsley in 1908 who also built a small Advent Christian Church and cemetery on his property in the one hundred block of West 17th Street.  Although the church has been removed, the cemetery is still evident and is known as the Advent Christian Church Cemetery.  Lindsley’s Subdivision ran from the railroad tracks on the south to West 21st Street on the north and from North Pearl Street on the west to North Main Street on the east.  To the north of Lindsley’s plat was the Springfield Northwest Portion (1908) that was defined on the east by Pearl Street, on the west by Boulevard, and from West 21st Street north to West 27th Street.  In 1912, North Springfield Heights was platted by the Springfield Heights Company and included the property located between West 16th Street north to West 21st. Street and from Springfield Boulevard east to North Pearl Street.  Placed on the market in 1913 by the Brentwood Realty Investment Company under C.W. Bartleson, President, the original Brentwood Subdivision was roughly defined by West 26th Street on the south, West 35th Street on the north, and from North Pearl Street on the east to North Davis Street on the west.[15]

To the south of the Brentwood Subdivision, the City of Jacksonville had acquired a 2.1 acre parcel between West 21st Street on the south to West 28th Street on the north from members of the Manery, Jackson, and Mattox families in 1927 and 28 which was opened as Brentwood Park in 1929.[16] A large parcel to the west with frontage along Golfair Boulevard was used for the construction of the Brentwood Elementary School in 1915 which was expanded in 1928, 29 and again in 1934.[17] The park was improved in 1932 with the construction of a bandstand and comfort station that was expanded in 1936 and 1937.  Designed by the prominent Jacksonville architect, Roy A. Benjamin and constructed by H.S. Braid, the distinctive Brentwood Bandstand and Comfort Station reflected the Neoclassical Style with is Doric columns, as well as classical frieze and pediment highlighted by bas-relief sculptures.[18] The area has its first high school when Andrew Jackson Senior High School opened on October 3, 1927 at 3816 North Main Street, the same day as its architectural twin, Robert E. Lee Senior High School in Riverside.  Designed in the Italian Renaissance Style by the noted Jacksonville architectural partnership of Mark & Sheftall along with consulting architect, William b. Ittner of St. Louis, both schools, which cost one million a piece, were built to replace old Duval High School in Downtown Jacksonville.[19]


With the onset of the Great Depression and the growing demand for safe and sound affordable housing, the Florida legislature in 1937 passed enabling acts to allow cities and towns with a population over 5,000 to create housing authorities, which the City of Jacksonville did on June 17, 1937.  By 1938, the authority had acquired forty-acres of old dairy land south of the Brentwood Subdivision for the construction of 230 housing units for whites. Built immediately adjacent to an existing school and public park, the new Brentwood Housing Project was composed of one and two-story units constructed of concrete block walls and floors and originally covered with tile roofs.  Costing approximately $742,123, the units, which were first occupied on July 1, 1939, were constructed by the J.A. Jones Construction Company of Charlotte, North Carolina, from designs by Jacksonville architects, W. Kenyon Drake, Mellen C. Greeley, Joseph H. Bryson, and Clyde E. Harris.


By October of 1939, the Jacksonville Housing Authority entered into a contract with the United States Housing Authority to construct 370 additional units at Brentwood, as well as administrative offices, assembly rooms, demonstration kitchen, and shop space.  The Brentwood Housing Project was in addition to the already existing Durkeeville Housing Project for African Americans, which was composed of 215 units on twenty acres completed in 1936 by the Housing Division of the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works.  These early housing projects such as Durkeeville, Brentwood and Blodgett Homes (1940) in Jacksonville, Liberty Square in Miami, and Griffin Park in Orlando, resulted from Federal housing programs initiated as part of the New Deal to address the problem of substandard housing and urban decay.[20]


The neighborhoods commonly referred to as Norwood and Northshore were the result of numerous plats filed between 1912 and 1940.  The original Norwood Plat was filed in 1912 and was roughly bounded by Moncrief Creek to the west, Lem Turner Road (Norwood Avenue) to the south, West 47th Street and the railroad tracks to the east, and Jefferson Road (?) to the north.  The area had sufficiently grown to require the construction of Norwood Elementary School in 1926, which was expanded in 1930, 1941, and 1946.[21] Developers associated with some of these early Northshore plats included the Brown Realty Company, P.T. Schafer, Bryson Livestock Company (Walter J. Bryson & A.E. Dempster), James W. & Louise C. Edmondson, David Davis, Pearl Lee and William A. Lowery. During the 1930’s, many of the houses being built in such areas as Northshore tended to be smaller and more scaled down than their predecessors designed in the earlier Victorian and Revival styles.  These residences were constructed to meet the housing needs of the growing middle class population of Jacksonville many who were taking advantage of the Federal Housing Authority’s guaranteed mortgages.[22]

During the second half of the twentieth century, the west end of the Metro North community was greatly impacted by expressway construction.  With the creation of the Jacksonville Expressway Authority by the state legislature in 1955, a seventy million dollar bond program was initiated in 1957 for the purposes of extending I-95 south from Dunn Avenue across the Fuller Warren Bridge to the southside.  In addition to the construction of the Trout River Bridge and the development of the 20th Street Expressway from U.S. I to Haines Street, the bond program also included extending I-10 from I-95 west to Lane Avenue.  The entire bond project required the acquisition of approximately 2,594 parcels located in and along the right-of-way.[23]




Craig, James C.  “Growth of the Suburbs”, Papers of the Jacksonville Historical Society. Jacksonville, Vol. III, 1954.

Craig, James C.  “Moncrief Springs”, Papers of the Jacksonville Historical Society. Jacksonville, Vol. III, 1954.

Davis, T. Frederick. History of Early Jacksonville and Vicinity, 1513-1924.

St. Augustine, Florida, The Record Company, 1924.

Edwards, Lucy Ames. Grave Markers of Duval County, 1808-1916.  Jacksonville, 1955.

Fisher, Prim W. A History of the Rotary Club of Jacksonville, Florida Club No. 41.  Jacksonville, Convention Press, 1962.

Jacksonville Housing Authority. One Bad Apple.  1947.

Lanier, Sidney.  Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History.  A Facsimile Reproduction of the 1875 Edition with Introduction and Index by Jerrell H. Shofner. Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 1973.

McAlester, Virginia & Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses.  New York, 1991.

Martin, Richard A. A Century of Service, St. Luke’s Hospital, 1873-1973. Jacksonville, 1973.

Martin, Richard A. The City Makers. Jacksonville, Convention Press, Inc., 1972.

Sollee, Arthur Neyle Sr. The Engineer Speaks, Memoirs Covering Five Decades of Highway Problems in Duval County.  Jacksonville.

Ward, James Robertson. Old Hickory’s Town:  An Illustrated History of Jacksonville.  Florida Publishing Company, Jacksonville, 1982.

Wood Wayne W. Jacksonville’s Architectural Heritage: Landmarks for the Future.  Jacksonville, 1989.

Work Projects Administration. Historical Records Survey, Spanish Land Grants in Florida, Volume V, Confirmed Claims S-V. Tallahassee, State Library Board, May, 1941.

Miscellaneous Sources:

Jacksonville City Directories, 1921-1953.

Jacksonville Planning and Development Department. Brentwood Public Housing Project, Vertical Files.

Public Records

Duval County Courthouse Plat Books

Tallulah, AE-498

Panama Park, AB-560

Moncrief Park, AK-684

Long branch, AH-526

North Springfield, 1-45

Lindsley, 7-16

Springfield Northwest Portion (1908), 3-15

North Springfield Heights (1912) 5-30

Brentwood (1913), 5-38

Norwood (1912), 5-19

Northshore (1915), 6-64 & 8-29.

Jacksonville Building Permit Records









Florida Times Union

September 10, 1952, p. 17

March 23, 1986, M-14.

Southside/Mandarin Community News, January 1, 1990, p. 4.

River City News-Westside, May 9, 1998, W-5.

March 17, 1999, A-2

November 15, 1999, B-7

The Jacksonivlle Advocate, Vol. 22, #26, July 5-11, 1991, p.1.

The Jacksonville Business Journal, December 15 – 26, 2000, p. 4.

The Jacksonville Journal

May 30, 1932, p. 9

December 30, 1938

[1] T. Frederick Davis, History of Jacksonville, Florida and Vicinity.  (St. Augustine, Florida:  The Florida Historical Society, 1925), pp. 26-28.

James Robertson Ward, Old Hickory’s Town, An Illustrated History of Jacksonville.  (Jacksonville, Florida: Old Hickory’s Town, Incorporated, 1985), pp. 63-64.

[2] Work Projects Administration, Historical Records Survey,  Spanish Land Grants in Florida, Volume V, Confirmed Claims, S-V.  Tallahassee, Florida:  State Library Board, May, 1941), pp. 75-81.

[3] Davis, p. 67-68.

Joyce M. Pickett, “The Heritage of Pickettville Lives On”, Now and Then, Jacksonville History Magazine,  Vaughan Publishing, Jacksonville, Florida, Fall, 1998, Vol 3, # 3, p. 22.

William R. Adams, An Historic Structures Survey of Pritchard Road, Old Kings’s Road, and Soutel Drive from U. S. 295 to U.S. 1 in Duval County, Florida. Historic Property Associates, St. Augustine, Florida, 1995.

Work Projects Administration, Historical Records Survey,  Spanish Land Grants in Florida, Volume IV, Confirmed Claims ,K-R.  Tallahassee, Florida:  State Library Board, May, 1941), p. 206

[4] Florida Times Union, Westside News, November 11, 1987, p. 10.

The Record News, Thursday, July 11, 1974, p. 8.

[5] Duval County Courthouse Archibald Plats:  AE-498; AB-560; AK-684; & AH-526; Plat Book 1, p. 45.

[6] James C. Craig, “Growth of the Suburbs”, Papers of the Jacksonville Historical Society, (Jacksonville, Vol. III, 1954), p. 45.

Richard A. Martin, The City Makers.  (Jacksonville:  Convention Press, Inc. 1972), pp. 17-18, 172, & 177.

[7] James C. Craig,  “Moncrief Springs”, Papers of the Jacksonville Historical Society.  (Jacksonville:  Vol. III, 1954), pp. 82-83.

Florida Times Union, Southside/Mandarin Community News, January 31, 1990, p. 4.

Florida Times Union, River City News-Westside, May 9, 1998, w-5.

[8] Ibid.

Sidney Lanier, Florida:  Its Scenery, Climate, and History. A Facsimile Reproduction of the 1875 Edition with Introduction and Index by Jerrell H. Shofner. (Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 1973), pp. 84-86.

[9] Davis, pp. 343-348, 372-375, & 378.

[10] Martin, pp. 176-177

Wood, p. 377

Lucy Ames Edwards, Grave Markers of Duval County, 1808-1916.  Jacksonville, Florida, 1955, p. 145.

[11] Davis, pp. 180-186.

Martin, p. 145.

[12] The Jacksonville Advocate, Vol. 22, #26, July 5-July 11, 1999, p. 1.

Jacksonville Business Journal, December 15-21, 2000, p. 4.

Florida Times Union/Jacksonville Journal, March 23, 1986, M-14.

Florida Times Union, March 17, 1999, A-2

Florida Times Union, November 15, 1999, B-7.

[13] Wood, pp. 99, 173-174.

Davis, pp. 209-215.

Richard A. Martin, A Century of Service, St. Luke’s Hospital, 1873-1973.  Jacksonville, 1973.  pp. 110-121.

[14] Martin, pp. 188-190.

Wood, pp. 25-28.

Davis, 219-227.

[15] Duval County Courthouse Plat Books:  Lindsley S/D- 7-16; Springfield Northwest Portion (1908), 3-15; North Springfield Heights (1912), 5-30; Brentwood, (1913), 5-38.

[16] Duval County Courthouse, Deedbooks 444-357, 470-222; & 470-224

[17] Jacksonville Building Permit Records, 1928-1062, 1929-485, & 1934-3

[18] Wood, p. 368

Jacksonville Journal, May 30, 1932, p. 9.

[19] Wood, p. 369

[20] The Jacksonville Housing Authority,  One Bad Apple 1947, pp. 6, 12,

Jacksonville Planning and Development Department, Vertical Files – Brentwood Public Housing Project.

Jacksonville Journal, December 30, 1938.

[21] Jacksonville Building Permit Records, 1930-186; 1941-268, & 1946-364.

[22] Duval County Court House Plat Books:  Norwood, (1912), 5-19; Northshore Subdivision (1915), 6-64 & 8-29.

[23] Arthur Neyle Sollee, Sr.  The Engineer Speaks, Memoirs Covering Five Decades of Highway Problems in Duval Co